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People as far away as Alaska and Hawaii were eager to enroll. But the most surprising part was what they were willing to do. The study required them to swallow capsules containing stool to test whether gut bacteria from lean donors could improve their metabolic health. The link between the gut and metabolic disease is a growing area of obesity research. In recent years, scientists have uncovered clues that the microbiota, the community of trillions of microbes that live in the gut, plays a role in weight gain and metabolic disease.
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Now, in small studies, they are exploring whether they can spur changes in metabolism and potentially in body weight through a therapy known as fecal microbiota transplants, or FMT, which transfers gut bacteria from lean donors to the guts of obese patients. The research, which is still in its infancy, has yielded mixed results and plenty of skepticism.
Experts say fecal transplants will never replace diet, exercise, behavioral therapies and other standard interventions for obesity and Type 2 diabetes. But some believe they could lead to the discovery of bacteria that protect against metabolic disease, and perhaps become one of many tools that help obese patients who are struggling to shed pounds.
But even for patients where the microbiome is playing a big part, I think this would be something that is part of a larger weight loss program. Scientists have known for some time that the microbiomes of obese and lean people differ in striking ways. Obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver disease are associated with less microbial diversity and higher levels of a group of organisms called Firmicutes. It is not clear whether the obesity and diseases come first or vice versa.
But there are indications that the microbiome plays an important role. Scientists have found differences in the gut bacteria of children as young as 6 months old that can predict future weight gain. Studies of obese mice show that they harbor gut microbes that are better able to harvest energy from food, and when their microbiota are transplanted into the guts of lean mice, the svelte recipients gain weight. While these findings were coming to light, scientists discovered that fecal transplants were a remarkably effective treatment for Clostridium difficile, a devastating bacterial infection that often occurs when antibiotics decimate the healthy gut bacteria that keep it in check.
Fecal transplants from healthy donors, administered through colonoscopy or capsules containing desiccated stool, reintroduce beneficial bacteria to the guts of ailing patients, providing resistance against C difficile. In at least one case described in a medical journal, a lean woman who received a fecal transplant from her overweight daughter to treat a C diff infection quickly gained 34 pounds.
She says during peak points of migraine pain, she feels so hopeless her thoughts can turn to self-harm and even suicide. Reminding herself the pain will pass, and that she has two daughters to live for, is what gets Nicole through. Mr Edmunds says feeling despondent is a common reaction to chronic migraine, as people struggle to find a treatment that works for them.
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Nicole has seen GPs, osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors and acupuncturists, and has recently taken up yoga to help find relief from her migraines. Willing to give almost anything a go to reduce or stop her migraine, Nicole decided to get daith piercings — a piercing that goes through the cartilage of the ear next to the ear canal — despite there being no medical evidence to support its efficacy in relieving migraine symptoms. The area is a pressure point used in acupuncture, and there are anecdotal reports from some people reporting reduced migraines following the piercing.
While she reports having fewer migraines since getting the piercings and using essential oils, she says the ones she does get tend to last for a shorter time, but are more intense when they hit.
itlauto.com/wp-includes/app/68-comment-pirater-un.php Like Nicole, Dianne O'Reilly has tried a range of medications to deal with her migraines, which started when she was 14 years old. In Year 10, Dianne missed two days of her work placement because of migraine. It was then she decided to find ways to cope so she could have a career. Dianne works as a paralegal in a Hobart-based firm. She says she rarely takes time off work for her migraines.
If she's hit with a really bad one, she stays home until the pain has eased, and then will go back to work even if she's still not feeling entirely well.
Mr Edmunds says there can be stigma around sick leave in the workforce for people with migraines, because it's an unseen illness and some people are sceptical about the condition's severity. They deserve every support and assistance, and not to be told you can just carry on," he says. One of the lawyers at her current workplace also experiences regular migraines, and Dianne says this has helped with her employer being more understanding of her needs and putting in place changes to Dianne's office to help her mitigate her symptoms. Dianne's office has a window for natural light and no fluorescent overhead lighting.
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